ODS 4 Harderwijk sfeer 13

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Science Supporting Challenge Day Programs

"When we take the other’s perspective, we feel an empathic state of concern and are motivated to address that person’s needs and enhance that person’s welfare, sometimes even at our own expense" (Keltner, 2004).

"Compassion in young people and adults produces a positive physiological response: the heart rate drops from baseline levels preparing people to approach and soothe others. This is in contrast to when people are threatened or traumatized, which creates a “fight or flight” emotional and physiological response" (Keltner, 2004).

"Belongingness is a “fundamental human motivation” and the lack of belongingness – social exclusion—is a main source of anxiety and often leads to significant emotional distress" (Seppala, Rossomando, & Doty, 2013).

"Individuals who are socially active with satisfying relationships report above-average levels of happiness, lower levels of depression and anxiety, and higher resiliency across a broad array of stressful life events and environments" (Seppala, Rossomando, & Doty, 2013).

"Social rejection, in particular, seems to have a highly disorganizing effect on people, leading to self-defeating, impulsive, and under-controlled behavior" (Seppala, Rossomando, & Doty, 2013).

"Increasing one’s sense of connection toward a member of a stigmatized group through perspective-taking (seeing a situation from the point of view of the other person) increases one’s connection to the group as a whole … [and] to empathy and helping behavior even at a cost to oneself" (Seppala, Rossomando, & Doty, 2013).

"There appears to be a causal relationship between low social connection and cognitive impairment that may explain why low social connection is associated with lower school outcomes. Also, feeling uncertain about belongingness can undermine motivation and achievement" (Seppala, Rossomando, & Doty, 2013).

30 percent of students in grades nine through 12 reported feeling sad or hopeless almost every day for an extended period equal to two or more weeks in a row (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

9.4% of young people age 14-17 witnessed family assault (Finkelhor, Turner, Shattuck & Hamby, 2015).

17% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they had thought seriously about attempting suicide, and 14% made a plan about how they would attempt suicide (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

8% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they had attempted suicide (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

2.7% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that their suicide attempts required medical attention (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

75% of the words used by high schoolers to describe how they currently feel in school were negative (Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence, 2015).

39% of high school students used “Tired” to describe their current emotions at school, 29% used “Stressed”, and 26% used “Bored” (Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence, 2015).

High school students who said other people have been mean or cruel to them tend to feel lonelier, fearful, and hopeless (Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence, 2015).

High school students report that they want to feel happy, excited, and energized (Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence, 2015).

19.6% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they were bullied on school property (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

14.8% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they were electronically bullied (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

60% of parents reported that they worry that their child might be bullied at some point; the greatest concern that they had exceeding concerns about other forms of violence, pregnancy, or use alcohol and drug problems (Pew Research Center, 2015).

24.7% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they were in a physical fight, and 3.1% reported that they were injured in a physical fight (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

8.1% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they were in a physical fight on school property (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

7.1% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they did not go to school because of safety concerns (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

5.2% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they carried a weapon on school property, and 6.9% reported that they were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

10.3% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they experienced physical dating violence (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

7.3% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported that they were ever forced to have sexual intercourse (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).

41% of young people age 14-17 experienced some form of physical assault (Finkelhor, Turner, Shattuck & Hamby, 2015).

39% of young people age 14-17 experienced some form of relational aggression (Finkelhor, Turner, Shattuck & Hamby, 2015).

15.7% of young people age 14-17 experienced emotional abuse (Finkelhor, Turner, Shattuck & Hamby, 2015).

8.6% of young people age 14-17 experienced internet or cell phone harassment (Finkelhor, Turner, Shattuck & Hamby, 2015).

"Youth who are bullied are more likely to be depressed or anxious, have lower academic achievement, report feeling like they do not belong at school, have poorer social and emotional adjustment, greater difficulty making friends, poorer relationships with classmates, and greater loneliness" (Hertz, Donato & Wright, 2013).

"The longer a child is bullied, the worse the impact on mental and physical health" (Bogart, Elliott, et al, 2014).

"Children who are bullied are at risk for a wide range of poor social, health, and economic outcomes nearly four decades after exposure to bullying" (Takizawa, Maughan & Arseneault, 2014).

"There was a higher risk of both depression and suicidal ideation among both students who were bullied and who were bullies" (Kaltiala-Heino, Rimpela, Marttunen, et al, 1999).

"Bullies were often as depressed as those who were bullied, and suicidal ideation was even more common among bullies" (Bogart, Elliott, et al, 2014).

"Bullying was a significant predictor of violence six years later in life, increasing the risk of later violence by about two-thirds" (Ttofi, Farrington & Losel, 2012).

"Youth who have experienced maltreatment such as abuse or neglect were more likely to engage in bullying and more likely to be victims of bullying than peers who did not experience maltreatment" (Shields & Cichetti, 2001).

"Youth who experienced physical child harm (both corporal punishment and physical child abuse) were more likely to be involved in bullying than those who did not experience physical harm" (Dussich & Maekoya, 2007).

"While young children were more likely than older children to be victims of child maltreatment, 7% of youth age 12-15 and 4.5% age 16-17 reported maltreatment" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).


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Sources

Dacher Keltner. The Compassionate Instinct. Greater Good Science Center. March 1, 2004. Online article.

Emma Seppala, Timothy Rossomando, and James R. Doty. Social Connection and Compassion: Important Predictors of Health and Well-Being. Social Research Vol. 80; No 2: Summer 2013. 411-430.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2013. MMWR Surveillance Summaries/Vol.63/No.4. Published June 13, 2014.

David Finkelhor, Heather A. Turner, Anne Shattuck, Sherry L. Hamby. Prevalence of Childhood Exposure to Violence, Crime, and Abuse. JAMA Pediatrics. Published online June 29, 2015. E1-E9.

Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence. The Emotional Revolution. Online Survey of 22,000 High School-Age Youth. Published online October 26, 2015.

Pew Research Center. Parenting in America. Published online December 17, 2015.

Marci Feldman Hertz, M.S., Ingrid Donato, James Wright, M.S., L.C.P.C. Bullying and Suicide: A Public Health Approach. Journal of Adolescent Health 53 (2013). 51-53

Laura M. Bogart, Marc N. Elliott, et al. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade. Pediatrics 2014. 460-468.

Ryu Takizawa, M.D., Ph.D., Barbara Maughan, Ph.D. Louise Arseneault, Ph.D. Adult Health Outcomes of Childhood Bullying Victimization: Evidence From a Five-Decade Longitudinal British Birth Cohort. Am J Psychiatry 171:7, July 2014. 777-784.

Riittakerttu Kaltiala­Heino, Matti Rimpelä, Mauri Marttunen, et al. Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: school survey. BMJ. Volume 319 7. August 1999. 348-351

Maria M. Ttofi, David P. Farrington, Friedrich Lösel. School bullying as a predictor of violence later in life: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior 17 (2012). 405–418

Shields, A. & Cichetti, D. Parental maltreatment and emotional dysregulation as risk factors for bullying and victimization in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 30(3) (2001): 349-363

Dussich, J.P.J. & Maekoya, C. Physical child harm and bullying-related behaviors: A comparative study in Japan, South Africa, and the United States. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 51 (2007): 495-509

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families. Child Maltreatment 2011 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011).